Literacy Tutoring

Read, Write, Inc. vowel digraphs and their accompanying picture.

Literacy Tutoring

Research has shown that reading with comprehension and fluency is achieved by literacy instruction at word level that involves:

  • Phonological (or the sounds of language) awareness skills
  • Letter-sound correspondences
  • Whole sight words
  • Explicit decoding teaching
What is phonics?

Phonics instruction involves teaching the letter-sound rule system and reading by decoding. Phonics teaching approaches have been consistently associated with increased word reading attainment for typically developing and struggling readers.

How do we teach phonics?

For phonics instruction to have a lasting impact on reading ability, it is crucial that teaching is systematic and explicit. At Forging Roots Education we use the systematic and comprehensive phonics program Read, Write, Inc. (RWI) developed by Ruth Miskin. RWI is taught in over 5000 schools in the U.K. to great effect. We also adapt this program to meet the needs of non-verbal learners.

We embed phonics teaching within a broad literacy approach that encompasses automatic word recognition, comprehension strategies, work on fluency and vocabulary learning and emphasises reading for meaning. Students are then given time and support to apply their new skills to independent reading and writing.


Brooks, G. (2016). ‘What works for children and young people with literacy difficulties?’

Cain, K. (2010). Reading development and difficulties. Chichester: BPS Blackwell/John Wiley.

Duff, F. J., & Clarke, P. J. (2011). ‘Practitioner Review: Reading disorders: What are the effective interventions and how should they be implemented and evaluated?’ Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 52(1), pp. 3–12.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, DHHS. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read: Reports of the Subgroups (00-4754). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

International Literacy Association. ‘Dyslexia Response to the International Dyslexia Association RESEARCH ADVISORY ADDENDUM’.

Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Rose, E., Lindamoood, P., & Conway, T. (1999). Preventing reading failure in young students with phonological processing disabilities: Group and individual responses to instruction, Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 579-593.

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